Part 10: Teak, awning, engine and 1001 small things
We continue to repair the sailboat.
Things are moving forward, with teak the deck looks much more interesting.
Teak was laid in a "herringbone" pattern because the slats are wide and thick and you can't bend them without cutting each one. It is much cheaper to lay down a Christmas tree and looks good too.
The cabin is almost ready:
They laid the mast, did not have time to try it on before the cold weather ... They left it for the spring.
A cutout had to be made in the bow structure so that the anchor box hatch could open. I didn't think of it right away.
"Cradle" for the mast at the stern. The mast is planned with a blockage system on the move, for passing under low bridges.
Another part of the work on the cabin is done. These are the first photos of 2017, winter:
Folding table on the port side (navigator's place in combination)
On the wires while the chartplotter hangs
Installed the radio, connected to the speakers - everything works, the sound is very loud.
Bought and installed awning:
I must write that the contractor was the company YUG-tent. After my experience with them, I would never recommend anyone to work with them again. The manager behaves in a boorish way, does not take into account the client’s terms of reference (I had to swear so that they would make me enter the tent with a zipper), the installers lack engineering thought almost completely - two days after installation, the awning broke, despite the fact that Maxim warned where the weak points were , he was ignored. They took too much money for such work. Total distrust in regards to the payment for the tent from the manager, Mr.anichit with paranoia. Do not repeat my mistake, if you need an awning, order from someone else.
The awning is quite transparent and under it the solar panels provide some current (about 1 A) in sunny weather.
Work was also completed with electrical equipment (lights, electrical wiring, sockets, switches)
Now you can write about the electric motor, why I decided to install it and the rationale for the practicality of such a decision.
Hull dimensions impose certain restrictions on the engine and equipment weight of the sailboat as a whole. The case is small, only 8 meters long. Everyone who went to sea knows that an outboard engine on a transom is not the best solution for cruising (I'm not talking about racing now - every gram counts in weight to the detriment of convenience and reliability). The motor on the transom can periodically emerge from the wave, which leads to a loss of traction and is harmful to the engine, because. works without water cooling during such periods. In addition, the emphasis of the screw on the transom is worse than to the prI measure under the body, where they put the screws from the stationary engine. Some sailboat builders use a trick - they cut a “well” in the hull under the cockpit, into which the outboard motor is installed almost permanently. This solution has strengths and weaknesses:
The strengths include the best thrust of the screw, the absence of the need to hide the motor every time in the parking lot (passers-by people are different, maybe someone just lacks the motor for complete happiness and you can be left without it), the placement of the weight (outboard motor 6 hp). weighs about 30 kg) closer to the center of the hull, which has a positive effect on the weight distribution of the sailboat.
Weaknesses: there are no folding propellers for outboard motors, a conventional propeller will greatly slow down sailing, it also becomes necessary to organize an engine purge and exhaust outlet. Also: the outboard motor is not designed to be permanently immersed in water - metal corrosion will occur.
Another option is to install a stationary marine diesel or gasoline engine. For a boat of this size, this option is not very suitable, because. the weight of a marine diesel engine, even the weakest of those that are on sale, is about 110 kg with a gearbox, and the price is 4 thousand USD. There is only a 2-stroke gasoline marine stationary engine of the required power, which has a high gasoline consumption compared to 4-stroke ones.
I do not consider options with diesel and gasoline engines from walk-behind tractors due to their low reliability and short engine hours.
And finally, the option to install an electric motor. After re-reading many English-language forums, I came to the conclusion that it makes sense to install an electric motor on a displacement vessel, which includes cruising sailing sailboats, provided that lithium batteries and an optional gasoline generator are used to increase the operating time of the motor. As with all solutions, there are strengths and weaknesses.
Advantages of an electric motor:
- It is virtually indestructible compared to petrol or diesel engines.
- The motor itself is light (up to 10 kg)
- There is no need for a heavy reverse gear (a light, simple gear is enough, I found one that weighs 5 kg and suits my purposes)
- No noise and odors, environmentally friendly operation
- The ability to control the speed from 1 rpm to the maximum (for my motor 3000 rpm at a voltage of 48V). ICE engines cannot afford such precise control. they have a minimum speed of about 800 rpm.
- Long battery life at low power (at a speed of 2-3 knots, the power consumption from the battery, according to the calculations and reviews of those who have already done this, should be no more than 500-600 W)
- Possibility of dismantling and removal of propulsion components in parts without much difficulty. Each element, whether it be a battery, a motor or a reducer, weighs as much as it is quite possible for a person to lift without tension and take it to a car for subsequent transportation for repair, if such a need arises. It is not so easy to dismantle a 110 kg diesel engine and take it for repair, which entails calling a repairman to the sailboat, and this costs extra money.
- Under the condition of one-day crossings with access to an outlet, extremely low fuel (electricity) costs compared to ICE engines.
- Relatively expensive battery. The total cost of a battery sufficient for such a boat can reach 2-3 thousand dollars in a budget version.
- Difficulty in the fight against a strong oncoming current and wind. Current prices and battery capacities do not allow this to be done for as long as internal combustion engines. More often you have to rely on sails in heavy wind and wave conditions than on a motor.
- Without the installation of a gasoline generator, the battery life at full power is short.
- In electric transport, the rule "quieter - you will go further" works like never before.
An example of a good implementation of an electric motor on a sailing sailboat, which is what I aspire to (English) - link
Here is a good collection of testimonials from many sailing sailboats switching to electric propulsion - link
The decision has been made, I will install an electric motor with a drive on the propeller shaft through a simple gearbox.
Left to do:
1. Work with the body .
- Replace deck
- Replace the upper part of the boards (about 20 cm from the deck)
- Replace keel beam
- Sand the glass mat lagging behind the body along with the paint
- Wrap the body in fiberglass (different density and number of layers in different places)
- Make and glue an anchor box on the bow
- Fabricate and install new portholes on the sides of the cabin
- Manufacture and install internal and external lining for portholes
- Treat the hull with a substance to prevent the wood from reacting to the water in the sailboat
- Pitch the gaps between the body rails
- Fabricate and install coamings
- Insulate the body
- Mount the engine mount and organize the fuel hose wiring under the cockpit, where the fuel tank will be
- Install the inner lining of the cabin
- Craft a step in a cockpit with hatch
- Make and install books
- Teak on deck everywhere (except wheelhouse)
2. Working with the mast and sails .
- Replace the mast (because the wooden mast is not reliable in the state it is)
- Order new sails
- Hem old sails
3. Equipment on deck.
- Replace most of the deck equipment (stops, deck organizers, cleats, hawsers, shrouds, stays)
- Replace bulwark
- Fabricate and install aft arch for solar panels
- Fabricate and install a stainless steel nose structure
- Replace railing
- Install windlass and required deck organization
- Buy 1-2 more anchors, restore the old anchor
- Fabricate and install new hatches, including 4 new cockpit hatches
- Buy and install ventilation in the cabin
- Buy and carry out standing and running rigging
- Buy combined anchor line (5 meters chain + 45 meters rope)
- Buy and install a 1.5-meter VHF antenna for a walkie-talkie (the walkie-talkie will be old)
4. Electrical equipment and lighting.
- Replace wiring
- Buy and install LED lighting in the cabin
- Buy and install outdoor running lights
- Buy and install 3 solar panels of 50W
- Buy and install pumps for fresh water and outboard
- Buy and install a chartplotter, echo sounder transducer
- Install 220V and 12V sockets in the cabin, as well as 220V at the entrance - to charge the batteries
- Buy and install two 120 Ah batteries (subsequently replaced with two 100 Ah LiFePO4 batteries)
- Buy and connect controllers for charging batteries from solar panels and from shore power 220V
- Buy and install electrical switchboards for 220V and 12V
- Buy and install light switches and electric winch in the cabin
5. Cabin .
- Fabricate and install all furniture in the cabin
- Buy and install a washstand, gas stove.
- Buy and install a fresh water tank
- Fabricate and install a staircase for the cabin
- Buy parking tent
- Buy and install water supply
6. Engine .
- Buy and install a 3 kW electric motor and a 5 kW controller for it, a folding propeller and a shaft.
- Buy batteries li-ion 5-7 kWh